Different geographical areas give rise to different types of wine, and its quality is also determined by territory and its characteristics. 

What exactly are these characteristics?

There are 5 constant factors that certainly determine the taste and quality of a wine:

  • Position
  • Climate
  • Age
  • Exposure
  • Soil

The Position is fundamental for determining the growth of a vineyard.

Geographically, all the areas in which wine is produced are found, in both hemispheres, in temperate zones between 30 ° and 50 ° latitude with average annual temperatures between 10 and 20 ° C .

The shorter days delay the growth of the branches and favor fruit ripening, allowing the grapes to ripen before the arrival of the harsh continental winter.

Fun fact: most of the best quality wines are produced on the western coasts, mainly because western coasts tend to be less cold and less humid than the areas on the eastern coasts. The woods and mountains protect the vineyards from wind and rain and create a microclimate. They also provide valuable moisture for periods of drought through transpiration and evaporation. However, there is a negative side: the formation of mold. 

Topographically, the location on the ground of the vineyard, i.e. which direction the vine is facing, and the inclination and elevation of the hill, is also relevant. Adapting or manipulating local conditions can make a difference, for example, by carrying out operations that allow the vine to make the most of sun exposure, taking care of drainage and paying attention to temperatures.

Climate is also a very important factor that influences the growth of the vineyard and the quality of the wine.

Some vines survive even in extreme conditions, but it should be noted that most of the wine-growing areas are positioned between the climatic bands of 30 ° and 50 ° latitude.

Temperature

A vineyard cannot produce grapes suitable for making wine if the average annual temperatures have been below 10 ° C (with some exceptions).

Solar radiation
For the ripening of grapes, the heat coming from the sun is more important than its light. Vines need approximately 1300 hours of sunshine during their growing season.

Rain
A vineyard needs 68 cm of rainfall in a year.

Frost
Winter frost is useful for the vine, as it strengthens the wood and eliminates spores and insects that can nest on the plant. Obviously, it can kill the vine if it happens at the time when the buds are hatching or during flowering.

The variety of the soil

In the soil there is the root system that provides nourishment to the vine. The ideal soil for growing a vineyard must have a fairly thin surface layer and a sufficiently soft substrate that retains water well, to allow easy root penetration.

In Sicily, these 6 territorial elements are well balanced and constant, favoring the growth of unique vineyards and fantastic wine.

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